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## Big Ideas Math Book Geometry Answer Key Chapter 5 Congruent Triangles

Availing and practicing with the BIM Geometry Ch 5 Answer Key at the time of your exam preparation can make you learn the concepts so easily and quickly. You can also clear all your topic doubts by taking the help of **Big Ideas Math Geometry Solutions Chapter 5 Congruent Triangles**. All these questions and answers are prepared as per the latest syllabus and official guidelines.

Solve the * BIM Geometry Ch 5 Congruent Triangles Answer Key* provided exercises questions from 5.1 to 5.8, chapter review, chapter test, practices, chapter assessments, etc. Clear all examinations with ease & flying colors.

- Congruent Triangles Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency -Page 229
- Congruent Triangles Mathematical Practices – Page 230
- 5.1 Angles of Triangles – Page 231
- Lesson 5.1 Angles of Triangles – Page(232-238)
- Exercise 5.1 Angles of Triangles – Page(236-238)
- 5.2 Congruent Polygons – Page 239
- Lesson 5.2 Congruent Polygons – Page(240-244)
- Exercise 5.2 Congruent Polygons – Page(243-244)
- 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS – Page 245
- Lesson 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS – Page(246-250)
- Exercise 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS – Page(249-250)
- 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles – Page 251
- Lesson 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles – Page(252-258)
- Exercise 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles – Page(256-258)
- 5.1 to 5.4 Quiz – Page 260
- 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS – Page 261
- Lesson 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS – Page(262-268)
- Exercise 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS – Page(266-268)
- 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS – Page 269
- Lesson 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS – Page(270-276)
- Lesson 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS – Page(274-276)
- 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles – Page 277
- Lesson 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles – Page(278-282)
- Exercise 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles – Page(281-282)
- 5.8 Coordinate Proofs – Page 283
- Lesson 5.8 Coordinate Proofs – Page(284-288)
- Exercise 5.8 Coordinate Proofs – Page(287-288)
- Congruent Triangles Chapter Review – Page(290-294)
- Congruent Triangles Test – Page 295
- Congruent Triangles Cumulative Assessment – Page(296-297)

### Congruent Triangles Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency

Find the coordinates of the midpoint M of the segment with the given endpoints. Then find the distance between the two points.

Question 1.

P(- 4, 1) and Q(0, 7)

Answer:

Question 2.

G(3, 6) and H(9, – 2)

Answer:

Question 3.

U(- 1, – 2) and V(8, 0)

Answer:

Solve the equation.

Question 4.

7x + 12 = 3x

Answer:

Question 5.

14 – 6t = t

Answer:

Question 6.

5p + 10 = 8p + 1

Answer:

Question 7.

w + 13 = 11w – 7

Answer:

Question 8.

4x + 1 = 3 – 2x

Answer:

Question 9.

z – 2 = 4 + 9z

Answer:

Question 10.

**ABSTRACT REASONING**

Is it possible to find the length of a segment in a coordinate plane without using the Distance Formula? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

### Congruent Triangles Mathematical Practices

**Monitoring Progress**

Classify each statement as a definition, a postulate, or a theorem. Explain your reasoning.

Question 1.

In a coordinate plane, two non vertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is – 1.

Answer:

Question 2.

If two lines intersect to form a linear pair of congruent angles, then the lines are perpendicular.

Answer:

Question 3.

If two lines intersect to form a right angle. then the lines are perpendicular.

Answer:

Question 4.

Through any two points, there exists exactly one line.

Answer:

### 5.1 Angles of Triangles

**Exploration 1**

Writing a Conjecture

Work with a partner.

a. Use dynamic geometry software to draw any triangle and label it ∆ABC.

Answer:

b. Find the measures of the interior angles of the triangle.

Answer:

c. Find the sum of the interior angle measures.

Answer:

d. Repeat parts (a)-(c) with several other triangles. Then write a conjecture about the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle.

**CONSTRUCTING VIABLE ARGUMENTS**

To be proficient in math, you need to reason inductively about data and write conjectures.

Answer:

**Exploration 2**

Writing a Conjecture

Work With a partner.

a. Use dynamic geometry software to draw any triangle and label it ∆ABC.

Answer:

b. Draw an exterior angle at any vertex and find its measure.

Answer:

c. Find the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles of the triangle.

Answer:

d. Find the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles. Compare this sum to the measure of the exterior angle.

Answer:

e. Repeat parts (a)-(d) with several other triangles. Then write a conjecture that compares the measure of an exterior angle with the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles.

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 3.

How are the angle measures of a triangle related?

Answer:

Question 4.

An exterior angle of a triangle measures 32° What do you know about the measures of the interior angles? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

### Lesson 5.1 Angles of Triangles

**Monitoring Progress**

Question 1.

Draw an obtuse isosceles triangle and an acute scalene triangle.

Answer:

Question 2.

∆ABC has vertices A(0, 0), B(3, 3), and C(- 3, 3), Classify the triangle by its sides. Then determine whether it is a right triangle.

Answer:

Question 3.

Find the measure of ∠1

Answer:

Question 4.

Find the measure of each acute angle.

Answer:

### Exercise 5.1 Angles of Triangles

Vocabulary and Core Concept Check

Question 1.

**WRITING**

Can a right triangle also be obtuse? Explain our reasoning.

Answer:

Question 2.

**COMPLETE THE SENTENCE**

The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two ____________ interior angles.

Answer:

Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3-6, classify the triangle by its sides and by measuring its angles.

Question 3.

Answer:

Question 4.

Answer:

Question 5.

Answer:

Question 6.

Answer:

In Exercises 7-10, classify ∆ABC by its sides. Then determine whether it is a right triangle.

Question 7.

A(2, 3), B(6, 3), (2, 7)

Answer:

Question 8.

A(3, 3), B(6, 9), (6, – 3)

Answer:

Question 9.

A(1, 9), B(4, 8), C(2, 5)

Answer:

Question 10.

A(- 2, 3), B(0, – 3), C(3, – 2)

Answer:

In Exercises 11 – 14. find m∠1. Then classify the triangle by its angIes.

Question 11.

Answer:

Question 12.

Answer:

Question 13.

Answer:

Question 14.

Answer:

In Exercises 15-18, find the measure of the exterior angle.

Question 15.

Answer:

Question 16.

Answer:

Question 17.

Answer:

Question 18.

Answer:

In Exercises 19-22, find the measure of each acute angle.

Question 19.

Answer:

Question 20.

Answer:

Question 21.

Answer:

Question 22.

Answer:

In Exercises 23-26. find the measure of each acute angle in the right triangle.

Question 23.

The measure of one acute angle is 5 times the measure of the other acute angle.

Answer:

Question 24.

The measure of one acute angle is times the measure of the other acute angle.

Answer:

Question 25.

The measure of one acute angle is 3 times the sum of the measure of the other acute angle and 8.

Answer:

Question 26.

The measure of one acute angle is twice the difference of the measure of the other acute angle and 12.

Answer:

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

In Exercises 27 and 28, describe and correct the error in finding m∠1.

Question 27.

Answer:

Question 28.

Answer:

In Exercises 29-36, find the measure of the numbered angle.

Question 29.

∠1

Answer:

Question 30.

∠2

Answer:

Question 31.

∠3

Answer:

Question 32.

∠3

Answer:

Question 33.

∠5

Answer:

Question 34.

∠6

Answer:

Question 35.

∠7

Answer:

Question 36.

∠8

Answer:

Question 37.

**USING TOOLS**

Three people are standing on a stage. The distances between the three people are shown in the diagram. Classify the triangle by its sides and by measuring its angles.

Answer:

Question 38.

**USING STRUCTURE**

Which of the following sets of angle measures could form a triangle? Select all that apply.

(A) 100°, 50°, 40°

(B) 96°, 74°, 10°

(C) 165°, 113°, 82°

(D) 101°, 41°, 38°

(E) 90°, 45°, 45°

(F) 84°, 62°, 340

Answer:

Question 39.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

You are bending a strip of metal into an isosceles triangle for a sculpture. The strip of metal is 20 inches long. The first bend is made 6 inches from one end. Describe two ways you could complete the triangle.

Answer:

Question 40.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

Find and draw an object (or part of an object) that can be modeled by a triangle and an exterior angle. Describe the relationship between the interior angles of the triangle and the exterior angle in terms of the object.

Answer:

Question 41.

**PROVING A COROLLARY**

Prove the Corollary to the Triangle Sum Theorem (Corollary 5. 1).

Given ∆ABC is a right triangle

Prove ∠A and ∠B are complementary

Answer:

Question 42.

**PROVING A THEOREM**

Prove the Exterior Angle Theorem (Theorem 5.2).

Given ∆ABC, exterior ∠BCD

Prove m∠A + m∠B = m∠BCD

Answer:

Question 43.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

Is it possible to draw an obtuse isosceles triangle? obtuse equilateral triangle? If so, provide examples. If not, explain why it is not possible.

Answer:

Question 44.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

Is it possible to draw a right isosecles triangle? right equilateral triangle? If so, provide an example. If not, explain why it is not possible.

Answer:

Question 45.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

∆ABC is isosceles.

AB = x, and BC = 2x – 4.

a. Find two possible values for x when the perimeter of ∆ABC is 32.

b. How many possible values are there for x when the perimeter of ∆ABC is 12?

Answer:

Question 46.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

Classify the triangles, in as many ways as possible. without finding any measurements.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Answer:

Question 47.

**ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS**

Which of the following could represent the measures of an exterior angle and two interior angles of a triangle? Select all that apply.

A) 100°, 62°, 38°

(B) 81°, 57°, 24°

(C) 119°, 68°, 49°

(D) 95°, 85°, 28°

(E) 92°, 78°, 68°

(F) 149°, 101°, 48°

Answer:

Question 48.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Your friend claims the measure of an exterior angle will always be greater than the sum of the nonadjacent interior angle measures. Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

In Exercises 49-52, find the values of x and y.

Question 49.

Answer:

Question 50.

Answer:

Question 51.

Answer:

Question 52.

Answer:

Question 53.

**PROVING A THEOREM**

Use the diagram to write a proof of the Triangle Sum Theorem (Theorem 5. 1). Your proof should be different from the proof of the Triangle Sum Theorem shown in this lesson.

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency

Use the diagram to find the measure of the segment or angle.

Question 54.

m∠KHL

Answer:

Question 55.

m∠ABC

Answer:

Question 56.

GH

Answer:

Question 57.

BC

Answer:

### 5.2 Congruent Polygons

**Exploration 1**

Describing Rigid Motions

Work with a partner: of the four transformations you studied in Chapter 4, which are rigid motions? Under a rigid motion. why is the image of a triangle always congruent to the original triangle? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

**Exploration 2**

Finding a Composition of Rigid Motions

Work with a partner. Describe a composition of rigid motions that maps ∆ABC to ∆DEF. Use dynamic geometry software to verify your answer.

**LOOKING FOR STRUCTURE**

To be proficient in math, you need to look closely to discern a pattern or structure.

a. ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

Answer:

b. ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

Answer:

c. ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

Answer:

d. ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 3.

Given two congruent triangles. how can you use rigid motions to map one triangle to the other triangle?

Answer:

Question 4.

The vertices of ∆ABC are A(1, 1), B(3, 2), and C(4, 4). The vertices of ∆DEF are D(2, – 1), E(0, 0), and F(- 1, 2). Describe a composition of rigid motions that maps ∆ABC to ∆DEF.

Answer:

### Lesson 5.2 Congruent Polygons

**Monitoring Progress**

In the diagram, ABGH ≅ CDEF.

Question 1.

Identify all pairs of congruent corresponding parts.

Answer:

Question 2.

Find the value of x.

Answer:

Question 3.

In the diagram at the left. show that ∆PTS ≅ ∆RTQ.

Answer:

Use the diagram.

Question 4.

Find m∠DCN.

Answer:

Question 5.

What additional information is needed to conclude that ∆NDC ≅ ∆NSR?

Answer:

### Exercise 5.2 Congruent Polygons

Question 1.

**WRITING**

Based on this lesson. what information do you need to prove that two triangles are congruent? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 2.

**DIFFERENT WORDS, SAME QUESTION**

Which is different? Find “both” answers.

Is ∆ABC ≅ ∆RST?

Answer:

Is ∆KJL ≅ ∆SRT?

Answer:

Is ∆JLK ≅ ∆STR?

Answer:

Is ∆LKJ ≅ ∆TSR?

Answer:

Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3 and 4. identify all pairs of congruent corresponding parts. Then write another congruence statement for the polygons.

Question 3.

∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

Answer:

Question 4.

GHJK ≅ ∆QRST

Answer:

In Exercises 5-8, ∆XYZ ≅ ∆MNL. Copy and complete the statement.

Question 5.

m∠Y = ______

Answer:

Question 6.

m∠M = ______

Answer:

Question 7.

m∠Z = _______

Answer:

Question 8.

XY= _______

Answer:

In Exercises 9 and 10. find the values of x and y.

Question 9.

ABCD ≅ EFGH

Answer:

Question 10.

∆MNP ≅ ∆TUS

Answer:

In Exercises 11 and 12. show that the polygons are congruent. Explain your reasoning.

Question 11.

Answer:

Question 12.

Answer:

In Exercises 13 and 14, find m∠1.

Question 13.

Answer:

Question 14.

Answer:

Question 15.

**PROOF**

Triangular postage stamps, like the ones shown, are highly valued by stamp collectors. Prove that ∆AEB ≅ ∆CED.

Given \(\overline{A B}\) || \(\overline{D C}\), \(\overline{A B}\) ≅ \(\overline{D C}\) is the midpoint of \(\overline{A C}\) and \(\overline{B D}\)

Prove ∆AEB ≅ ∆CED

Answer:

Question 16.

**PROOF**

Use the information in the figure to prove that ∆ABG ≅ ∆DCF

Answer:

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

In Exercises 17 and 18, describe and correct the error.

Question 17.

Answer:

Question 18.

Answer:

Question 19.

**PROVING A THEOREM**

Prove the Third Angles Theorem (Theorem 5.4) by using the Triangle Sum Theorem (Theorem 5. 1).

Answer:

Question 20.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

Draw a triangle. Copy the triangle multiple times to create a rug design made of congruent triangles. Which property guarantees that all the triangles are congruent?

Answer:

Question 21.

**REASONING**

∆JKL is congruent to ∆XYZ Identify all pairs of congruent corresponding parts.

Answer:

Question 22.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

In the diagram, ABEF ≅ CDEF

a. Explain how you know that \(\overline{B E}\) ≅ \(\overline{D E}\) and ∠ABE ≅∠CDE.

Answer:

b. Explain how you know that ∠GBE ≅ ∠GDE.

Answer:

c. Explain how you know that ∠GEB ≅ ∠GED.

Answer:

d. Do you have enough information to prove that ∠BEG ≅ ∠DEG? Explain.

Answer:

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

In Exercises 23 and 24, use the given information to write and solve a system of linear equations to find the values of x and y.

Question 23.

∆LMN ≅ ∆PQR. m∠L = 40°, m∠M = 90° m∠P = (17x – y)°. m∠R (2x + 4y)°

Answer:

Question 24.

∆STL ≅ ∆XYZ, m∠T = 28°, m∠U = (4x + y)°, m∠X = 130°, m∠Y = (8x – 6y)°

Answer:

Question 25.

**PROOF**

Prove that the criteria for congruent triangles in this lesson is equivalent to the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency

What can you conclude from the diagram?

Question 26.

Answer:

Question 27.

Answer:

Question 28.

Answer:

Question 29.

Answer:

### 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS

**Exploration 1**

Drawing Triangles

Work with a partner.

Use dynamic geometry software.

a. Construct circles with radii of 2 units and 3 units centered at the origin. Construct a 40° angle with its vertex at the origin. Label the vertex A.

Answer:

b. Locate the point where one ray of the angle intersects the smaller circle and label this point B. Locate the point where the other ray of the angle intersects the larger circle and label this point C. Then draw ∆ABC.

Answer:

c. Find BC, m∠B, and m∠C.

Answer:

d. Repeat parts (a)-(c) several times. redrawing the angle indifferent positions. Keep track of your results by copying and completing the table below. What can you conclude?

**USING TOOLS STRATEGICALLY**

To be proficient in math, you need to use technology to help visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data.

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 2.

What can you conclude about two triangles when you know that two pairs of corresponding sides and the corresponding included angles are congruent?

Answer:

Question 3.

How would you prove your conclusion in Exploration 1(d)?

Answer:

### Lesson 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS

**Monitoring Progress**

In the diagram, ABCD is a square with four congruent sides and four right

angles. R, S, T, and U are the midpoints of the sides of ABCD. Also, \(\overline{R T}\) ⊥ \(\overline{S U}\) and \(\overline{S V}\) ≅ \(\overline{V U}\).

Question 1.

Prove that ∆SVR ≅ ∆UVR.

Answer:

Question 2.

Prove that ∆BSR ≅ ∆DUT.

Answer:

Question 3.

You are designing the window shown in the photo. You want to make ∆DRA congruent to ∆DRG. You design the window so that \(\overline{D A}\) ≅ \(\overline{D G}\) and ∠ADR ≅ ∠GDR. Use the SAS Congruence Theorem to prove ∆DRA ≅ ∆DRG.

Answer:

### Exercise 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS

vocabulary and core concept check

Question 1.

**WRITING**

What is an included angle?

Answer:

Question 2.

**COMPLETE THE SENTENCE**

If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle of a second triangle, then __________ .

Answer:

Monitoring progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3-8, name the included an1e between the pair of sides given.

Question 3.

\(\overline{J K}\) and \(\overline{K L}\)

Answer:

Question 4.

\(\overline{P K}\) and \(\overline{L K}\)

Answer:

Question 5.

\(\overline{L P}\) and \(\overline{L K}\)

Answer:

Question 6.

\(\overline{J L}\) and \(\overline{J K}\)

Answer:

Question 7.

\(\overline{K L}\) and \(\overline{J L}\)

Answer:

Question 8.

\(\overline{K P}\) and \(\overline{P L}\)

Answer:

In Exercises 9-14, decide whether enough information is given to prove that the triangles are congruent using the SAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.5). Explain.

Question 9.

∆ABD, ∆CDB

Answer:

Question 10.

∆LMN, ∆NQP

Answer:

Question 11.

∆YXZ, ∆WXZ

Answer:

Question 12.

∆QRV, ∆TSU

Answer:

Question 13.

∆EFH, ∆GHF

Answer:

Question 14.

∆KLM, ∆MNK

Answer:

In Exercises 15 – 18, write a proof.

Question 15.

Given \(\overline{P Q}\) bisects ∠SPT, \(\overline{S P}\) ≅ \(\overline{T P}\)

Prove ∆SPQ ≅ ∆TPQ

Answer:

Question 16.

Given \(\overline{A B}\) ≅ \(\overline{C D}\), \(\overline{A B}\) || \(\overline{C D}\)

Prove ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDA

Answer:

Question 17.

Given C is the midpoint of \(\overline{A E}\) and \(\overline{B D}\)

Prove ∆ABC ≅ ∆EDC

Answer:

Question 18.

Given \(\overline{P T}\) ≅ \(\overline{R T}\), \(\overline{Q T}\) ≅ \(\overline{S T}\)

Prove ∆PQT ≅ ∆RST

Answer:

In Exercises 19-22, use the given information to name two triangles that are congruent. Explain your reasoning.

Question 19.

∠SRT ≅ ∠URT, and R is the center of the circle.

Answer:

Question 20.

ABCD is a square with four congruent sides and four congruent angles.

Answer:

Question 21.

RSTUV is a regular pentagon.

Answer:

Question 22.

\(\overline{M K}\) ⊥ \(\overline{M N}\), \(\overline{K L}\) ⊥ \(\overline{N L}\), and M and L are centers of circles.

Answer:

**CONSTRUCTION**

In Exercises 23 and 24, construct a triangle that is congruent to ∆ABC using the SAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.5).

Question 23.

Answer:

Question 24.

Answer:

Question 25.

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

Describe and correct the error in finding the value of x.

Answer:

Question 26.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

What additional information do you need to prove that ∆ABC ≅ ∆DBC?

Answer:

Question 27.

**PROOF**

The Navajo rug is made of isosceles triangles. You know ∠B ≅∠D. Use the SAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.5 to show that ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDE. (See Example 3.)

Answer:

Question 28.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

There are six possible subsets of three sides or angles of a triangle: SSS, SAS, SSA, AAA, ASA, and AAS. Which of these correspond to congruence theorems? For those that do not, give a counterexample.

Answer:

Question 29.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

Prove that

∆ABC ≅ ∆DEC

Then find the values of x and y.

Answer:

Question 30.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Your friend claims it is possible to Construct a triangle congruent to ∆ABC by first constructing \(\overline{A B}\) and \(\overline{A C}\), and then copying ∠C. Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 31.

**PROVING A THEOREM**

Prove the Reflections in Intersecting Lines Theorem (Theorem 4.3).

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency

Classify the triangle by its sides and by measuring its angles.

Question 32.

Answer:

Question 33.

Answer:

Question 34.

Answer:

Question 35.

Answer:

### 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles

**Exploration 1**

Writing a Conjecture about Isosceles Triangles

Work with a partner: Use dynamic geometry software.

a. Construct a circle with a radius of 3 units centered at the origin.

Answer:

b. Construct ∆ABC so that B and C are on the circle and A is at the origin.

Answer:

c. Recall that a triangle is isosceles if it has at least two congruent sides. Explain why ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle.

Answer:

d. What do you observe about the angles of ∆ABC?

Answer:

e. Repeat parts (a)-(d) with several other isosceles triangles using circles of different radii. Keep track of your observations by copying and completing the table below. Then write a conjecture about the angle measures of an isosceles triangle.

**CONSTRUCTING VIABLE ARGUMENTS**

To be proficient in math, you need to make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of your conjectures.

Answer:

f. Write the converse of the conjecture you wrote in part (e). Is the converse true?

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 2.

What conjectures can you make about the side lengths and angle measures of an

isosceles triangle?

Answer:

Question 3.

How would you prove your conclusion in Exploration 1 (e)? in Exploration 1(f)?

Answer:

### Lesson 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles

**Monitoring Progress**

Copy and complete the statement.

Question 1.

If \(\overline{H G}\) ≅ \(\overline{H K}\), then ∠ _______ ≅ ∠ _______ .

Answer:

Question 2.

If ∠KHJ ≅∠KJH, then ______ ≅ ______ .

Answer:

Question 3.

Find the length of \(\overline{S T}\) of the triangle at the left.

Answer:

Question 4.

Find the value of x and y in the diagram.

Answer:

Question 5.

In Example 4, show that ∆PTS ≅ ∆QTR

Answer:

### Exercise 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles

Vocabulary and Core Concept Check

Question 1.

**VOCABULARY**

Describe how to identify the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle.

Answer:

Question 2.

**WRITING**

What is the relationship between the base angles of an isosceles triangle? Explain.

Answer:

Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3-6. copy and complete the statement. State which theorem you used.

Question 3.

If \(\overline{A E}\) ≅ \(\overline{D E}\) then ∠_____ ≅ ∠_____ .

Answer:

Question 4.

If \(\overline{A B}\) ≅ \(\overline{E B}\) then ∠_____ ≅ ∠_____ .

Answer:

Question 5.

If ∠D ≅ ∠CED, then _______ ≅ _______ .

Answer:

Question 6.

If ∠EBC ≅ ∠ECB, then _______ ≅ _______ .

Answer:

In Exercises 7-10. find the value of x.

Question 7.

Answer:

Question 8.

Answer:

Question 9.

Answer:

Question 10.

Answer:

Question 11.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

The dimensions of a sports pennant are given in the diagram. Find the values of x and y.

Answer:

Question 12.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

A logo in an advertisement is an equilateral triangle with a side length of 7 centimeters. Sketch the logo and give the measure of each side.

Answer:

In Exercises 13-16, find the values of x and y.

Question 13.

Answer:

Question 14.

Answer:

Question 15.

Answer:

Question 16.

Answer:

**CONSTRUCTION**

In Exercises 17 and 18, construct an equilateral triangle whose sides are the given length.

Question 17.

3 inches

Answer:

Question 18.

1.25 inches

Answer:

Question 19.

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

Describe and correct the error in finding the length of \(\overline{B C}\).

Answer:

Question 20.

**PROBLEM SOLVING**

The diagram represents part of the exterior of the Bow Tower in Calgary. Alberta, Canada, In the diagram. ∆ABD and ∆CBD arc congruent equilateral triangles.

a. Explain why ∆ABC is isosceles.

Answer:

b. Explain ∠BAE ≅ ∠BCE.

Answer:

c. Show that ∆ABE and ∆CBE arc congruent.

Answer:

d. Find the measure of ∠BAE.

Answer:

Question 21.

**FINDING A PATTERN**

In the pattern shown. each small triangle is an equilateral triangle with an area of 1 square unit.

a. Explain how you know that an triangle made out of equilateral triangles is equilateral.

b. Find the areas of the first four triangles in the pattern.

c. Describe any patterns in the areas. Predict the area of the seventh triangle in the pattern. Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 22.

**REASONING**

The base of isosceles ∆XYZ is \(\overline{Y Z}\). What

can you prove? Select all that apply.

(A) \(\overline{X Y}\) ≅ \(\overline{X Z}\)

(B) ∠X ≅ ∠Y

(C) ∠Y ≅ ∠Z

(D) \(\overline{Y Z}\) ≅ \(\overline{Z X}\)

Answer:

In Exercises 23 and 24, find the perimeter of the triangle.

Question 23.

Answer:

Question 24.

Answer:

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

In Exercises 25 – 28. use the diagram based on the color wheel. The 12 triangles in the diagram are isosceles triangles with congruent vertex angles.

Question 25.

Complementary colors lie directly opposite each other on the color wheel. Explain how you know that the yellow triangle is congruent to the purple triangle.

Answer:

Question 26.

The measure of the vertex angle of the yellow triangle is 30°. Find the measures of the base angles.

Answer:

Question 27.

Trace the color wheel. Then form a triangle whose vertices are the midpoints of the bases of the red. yellow. and blue triangles. (These colors are the primary colors.) What type of triangle is this?

Answer:

Question 28.

Other triangles can be brined on the color wheel that are congruent to the triangle in Exercise 27. The colors on the vertices of these triangles are called triads. What are the possible triads?

Answer:

Question 29.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

Are isosceles triangles always acute triangles? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 30.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

Is it possible for an equilateral triangle to have an angle measure other than 60°? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 31.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 3t, 5t – 12, and t + 20. Find the values of t that make the triangle isosceles. Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 32.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

The measure of an exterior angle of an isosceles triangle is x°. Write expressions representing the possible angle measures of the triangle in terms of x.

Answer:

Question 33.

**WRITING**

Explain why the measure of the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle must be an even number of degrees when the measures of all the angles of the triangle are whole numbers.

Answer:

Question 34.

**PROBLEM SOLVING**

The triangular faces of the peaks on a roof arc congruent isosceles triangles with vertex angles U and V.

a. Name two angles congruent to ∠WUX. Explain your reasoning.

b. Find the distance between points U and V.

Answer:

Question 35.

**PROBLEM SOLVING**

A boat is traveling parallel to the shore along \(\vec{R}\)T. When the boat is at point R, the captain measures the angle to the lighthouse as 35°. After the boat has traveled 2.1 miles, the captain measures the angle to the lighthouse to be 70°.

a. Find SL. Explain your reasoning.

b. Explain how to find the distance between the boat and the shoreline.

Answer:

Question 36.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

The postulates and theorems in this book represent Euclidean geometry. In spherical geometry, all points are points on the surface of a sphere. A line is a circle on the sphere whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the sphere. In spherical geometry, do all equiangular triangles have the same angle measures? Justify your answer.

Answer:

Question 37.

**PROVING A COROLLARY**

Prove that the Corollary to the Base Angles Theorem (Corollary 5.2) follows from the Base Angles Theorem (Theorem 5.6).

Answer:

Question 38.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

You are designing fabric purses to sell at the school fair.

a. Explain why ∆ABE ≅ ∆DCE.

b. Name the isosceles triangles in the purse.

c. Name three angles that are congruent to ∠EAD.

Answer:

Question 39.

**PROVING A COROLLARY**

Prove that the Corollary to the Converse of the Base Angles Theorem (Corollary 5.3) follows from the Converse of the Base Angles Theorem (Theorem 5.7)

Answer:

Question 40.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

The coordinates of two points are T(0, 6) and U(6, 0) Your friend claims that points T, U, and V will always be the vertices of an isosceles triangle when V is any point on the line y = x. Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 41.

**PROOF**

Use the diagram to prove that ∆DEF is equilateral.

Given ∆ABC is equilateral

∠CAD ≅ ∠ABE ≅ ∠BCF

Prove ∆DEF is equilateral

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency

Use the given property to complete the statement.

Question 42.

Reflexive Property of Congruence (Theorem 2. 1): ________ ≅ \(\overline{S E}\)

Answer:

Question 43.

Symmetric Property of Congruence (Theorem 2.1): If ________ ≅ ________, then \(\overline{R S}\) ≅ \(\overline{J K}\)

Answer:

Question 44.

Transitive Property of Congruence (Theorem 2.1): If \(\overline{E F}\) ≅ \(\overline{P Q}\), and \(\overline{P Q}\) ≅ \(\overline{U V}\) ________ ≅ ________.

Answer:

### 5.1 to 5.4 Quiz

Find the measure of the exterior angle.

Question 1.

Answer:

Question 2.

Answer:

Question 3.

Answer:

Identify all pairs of congruent corresponding parts. Then write another congruence statement for the polygons.

Question 4.

∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

Answer:

Question 5.

QRST ≅ WXYZ

Answer:

Decide whether enough information is given to prove that the triangles are congruent using the SAS Congruence Theorem (Thm 5.5). If so, write a proof. If not, explain why.

Question 6.

∆CAD, ∆CBD

Answer:

Question 7.

∆GHF, ∆KHJ

Answer:

Question 8.

∆LWP, ∆NMP

Answer:

Copy and complete the statement. State which theorem you used.

Question 9.

If VW ≅ WX, then ∠______ ≅ ∠ ________.

Answer:

Question 10.

If XZ ≅ XY. then∠______ ≅ ∠ ________.

Answer:

Question 11.

If ∠ZVX ≅∠ZXV, then ∠______ ≅ ∠ ________.

Answer:

Question 12.

If ∠XYZ ≅∠ZXY, then ∠______ ≅ ∠ ________.

Answer:

Find the values of x and y.

Question 13.

∆DEF ≅ ∆QRS

Answer:

Question 14.

Answer:

Question 15.

In a right triangle, the measure of one acute angle is 4 times the difference of the measure of the other acute angle and 5. Find the measure ol each acute angle in the triangle. (Section 5.1)

Answer:

Question 16.

The figure shows a stained glass window. (Section 5.1 and Section 5.3)

a. Classify triangles 1 – 4 by their angles.

Answer:

b. Classify triangles 4 – 6 by their sides.

Answer:

c. Is there enough information given to prove that ∆7 ≅ ∆8? If so, label the vertices

and write a proof. If not, determine what additional information is needed.

Answer:

### 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS

**Exploration 1**

Drawing Triangles

Work with a partner.

Use dynamic geometry software.

a. Construct circles with radii of 2 units and 3 units centered at the origin. Label the origin A. Then draw \(\overline{B C}\) of length 4 units.

Answer:

b. Move \(\overline{B C}\) so that B is on the smaller circle and C is on the larger circle. Then draw ∆ABC.

Answer:

c. Explain why the side lengths of ∆ABC are 2, 3, and 4 units.

Answer:

d. Find m∠A, m∠B, and m∠C.

Answer:

e. Repeat parts (b)and (d) several times, moving \(\overline{B C}\) to different locations. Keep track of ‘our results by copying and completing the table below. What can you conclude?

**USING TOOLS STRATEGICALLY**

To be proficient in math, you need to use technology to help visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data.

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 2.

What can you conclude about two triangles when you know the corresponding sides are congruent?

Answer:

Question 3.

How would you prove your conclusion in Exploration 1(e)?

Answer:

### Lesson 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS

**Monitoring Progress**

Decide whether the congruence statement is true. Explain your reasoning.

Question 1.

∆DFG ≅ ∆HJK

Answer:

Question 2.

∆ACB ≅ ∆CAD

Answer:

Question 3.

∆QPT ≅ ∆RST

Answer:

Determine whether the figure is stable. Explain your reasoning.

Question 4.

Answer:

Question 5.

Answer:

Question 6.

Answer:

Use the diagram.

Question 7.

Redraw ∆ABC and ∆DCB side by side with corresponding parts in the same position.

Answer:

Question 8.

Use the information in the diagram to prove that ∆ABC ≅ ∆DCB.

Answer:

### Exercise 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS

Vocabulary and Core Concept Check

Question 1.

**COMPLETE THE SENTENCE**

The side opposite the right angle is called the __________of the right triangle.

Answer:

Question 2.

**WHICH ONE DOESNT BELONG?**

Which triangles legs do not belong with the other three? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3 and 4, decide whether enough information is given to prove that the triangles are congruent using the SSS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.8). Explain.

Question 3.

∆ABC, ∆DBE

Answer:

Question 4.

∆PQS, ∆RQS

Answer:

In Exercises 5 and 6, decide whether enough information is given to prove that the triangles are congruent using the HL Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.9). Explain.

Question 5.

∆ABC, ∆FED

Answer:

Question 6.

∆PQT, ∆SRT

Answer:

In Exercises 7-10. decide whether the congruence statement is true. Explain your reasoning.

Question 7.

∆RST ≅ ∆TQP

Answer:

Question 8.

∆ABD ≅ ∆CDB

Answer:

Question 9.

∆DEF ≅ ∆DGF

Answer:

Question 10.

∆JKL ≅ ∆LJM

Answer:

In Exercises 11 and 12, determine whether the figure is stable. Explain your reasoning.

Question 11.

Answer:

Question 12.

Answer:

In Exercises 13 and 14, redraw the triangles so they are side by side with corresponding parts in the same position. Then write a proof.

Question 13.

Given \(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{B D}\)

\(\overline{A B}\) ⊥ \(\overline{A D}\)

\(\overline{C D}\) ⊥ \(\overline{A D}\)

Prove ∆BAD ≅ ∆CDA

Answer:

Question 14.

Given G is the midpoint of \(\overline{E H}\), \(\overline{F G}\) ≅ \(\overline{G I}\), ∠E and ∠H are right angles.

Prove ∆EFG ≅ ∆HIG

Answer:

In Exercises 15 and 16. write a proof.

Question 15.

Given \(\overline{L M}\) ≅ \(\overline{J K}\), \(\overline{M J}\) ≅ \(\overline{K L}\)

Prove ∆LMJ ≅ ∆JKL

Answer:

Question 16.

Given \(\overline{W X}\) ≅ \(\overline{V Z}\), \(\overline{W Y}\) ≅ \(\overline{V Y}\), \(\overline{Y Z}\) ≅ \(\overline{Y X}\)

Prove ∆VWX ≅ ∆WVZ

Answer:

**CONSTRUCTION**

In Exercises 17 and 18, construct a triangle that is congruent to ∆QRS using the SSS Congruence Theorem Theorem 5.8).

Question 17.

Answer:

Question 18.

Answer:

Question 19.

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

Describe and correct the error in identifying congruent triangles.

Answer:

Question 20.

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

Describe and correct the error in determining the value of x that makes the triangles congruent.

Answer:

Question 21.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Your friend claims that in order to use the SSS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.8) Lo prove that two triangles are congruent, both triangles must be equilateral triangles. Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 22.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

The distances between consecutive bases on a softball field are the same. The distance from home plate to second base is the same as the distance from first base to third base. The angles created at each base are 90°. Prove

∆HFS ≅ ∆FST ≅ ∆STH

Answer:

Question 23.

**REASONING**

To support a tree you attach wires from the trunk of the tree to stakes in the ground, as shown in the diagram.

a. What additional information do you need to use the HL Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.9) to prove that ∆JKL ≅ ∆MKL?

b. Suppose K is the midpoint of JM. Name a theorem you could use to prove that ∆JKL ≅ ∆MKL. Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 24.

**REASONING**

Use the photo of the Navajo rug, where \(\overline{B C}\) ≅ \(\overline{D E}\) and \(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{C E}\)

a. What additional intormation do you need to use the SSS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.8) to prove that ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDE?

b. What additional information do you need to use the HL Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.9) to prove that ∆ABC ≅ ∆CDE?

Answer:

In Exercises 25-28. use the given coordinates to determine whether ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF.

Question 25.

A(- 2, – 2), B(4, – 2), C(4, 6), D(5, 7), E(5, 1), F(13, 1)

Answer:

Question 26.

A(- 2, 1), B(3, – 3), C(7, 5), D(3, 6), E(S, 2), F( 10, 11)

Answer:

Question 27.

A(0, 0), B(6, 5), C(9, 0), D(0, – 1), E(6, – 6), F(9, – 1)

Answer:

Question 28.

A(- 5, 7), B(- 5, 2), C(0, 2), D(0, 6), E(o, 1), F(4, 1)

Answer:

Question 29.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

You notice two triangles in the tile floor of a hotel lobby. You want to determine whether the triangles are congruent. but you only have a piece of string. Can you determine whether the triangles are congruent? Explain.

Answer:

Question 30.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

There are several theorems you can use to show that the triangles in the “square” pattern are congruent. Name two of them.

Answer:

Question 31.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Your cousin says that ∆JKL is congruent to ∆LMJ by the SSS Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.8). Your friend says that ∆JKL is congruent to ∆LMJ by the HL Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.9). Who is correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 32.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

The postulates and theorems in this book represent Euclidean geometry. In spherical geometry. all points are points on the surface of a sphere. A line is a circle on the sphere whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the sphere. In spherical geometry. do you think that two triangles are congruent if their corresponding sides are congruent? Justify your answer.

Answer:

**USING TOOLS**

In Exercises 33 and 34, use the given information to sketch ∆LMN and ∆STU. Mark the triangles with the given information.

Question 33.

Answer:

Question 34.

Answer:

Question 35.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

The diagram shows the light created by two spotlights, Both spotlights are the same distance from the stage.

Answer:

a. Show that ∆ABD ≅ ∆CBD. State which theorem or postulate you used and explain your reasoning.

b. Are all four right triangles shown in the diagram Congruent? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 36.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

Find all values of x that make the triangles congruent. Explain.

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical proficiency

Use the congruent triangles.

Question 37.

Name the Segment in ∆DEF that is congruent to \(\overline{A C}\).

Answer:

Question 38.

Name the segment in ∆ABC that is congruent to \(\overline{E F}\).

Answer:

Question 39.

Name the angle in ∆DEF that is congruent to ∠B.

Answer:

Question 40.

Name the angle in ∆ABC that is congruent to ∠F.

Answer:

### 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS

**Exploration 1**

Determining Whether SSA Is Sufficient

Work with a partner.

a. Use dynamic geometry software to construct ∆ABC. Construct the triangle so that vertex B is at the origin. \(\overline{A B}\) has a length of 3 units. and \(\overline{B C}\) has a length of 2 units.

Answer:

b. Construct a circle with a radius of 2 units centered at the origin. Locate point D where the circle intersects \(\overline{A C}\). Draw \(\overline{B D}\).

Answer:

c. ∆ABC and ∆ABD have two congruent sides and a non included congruent angle.

Name them.

Answer:

d. Is ∆ABC ≅ ∆ABD? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

e. Is SSA sufficient to determine whether two triangles are congruent? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

**Exploration 2**

Determining Valid Congruence Theorems

Work with a partner. Use dynamic geometry software to determine which of the following are valid triangle congruence theorems. For those that are not valid. write a counter example. Explain your reasoning.

**CONSTRUCTING VIABLE ARGUMENTS**

To be proficient in math, you need to recognize and use counterexamples.

Possible Congruence Theorem | Valid or not valid? |

SSS | |

SSA | |

SAS | |

AAS | |

ASA | |

AAA |

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 3.

What information is sufficient to determine whether two triangles are congruent?

Answer:

Question 4.

Is it possible to show that two triangles are congruent using more than one congruence theorem? If so, give an example.

Answer:

### Lesson 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS

**Monitoring Progress**

Question 1.

Can the triangles be proven congruent with the information given in the diagram? If so, state the theorem you would use.

Answer:

Question 2.

In the diagram, \(\overline{A B}\) ⊥ \(\overline{A D}\), \(\overline{D E}\) ⊥ \(\overline{A D}\), and \(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{D C}\) . Prove ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF.

Answer:

Question 3.

In the diagram, ∠S ≅ ∠U and \(\overline{B D}\)\(\overline{B D}\) . Prove that ∆RST ≅ ∆VYT

Answer:

### Lesson 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS

Vocabulary and Core Concept Check

Question 1.

**WRITING**

How arc the AAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5. 11) and the ASA Congruence

Theorem (Theorem 5.10) similar? How are they different?

Answer:

Question 2.

**WRITING**

You know that a pair of triangles has two pairs of congruent corresponding angles. What other information do you need to show that the triangles are congruent?

Answer:

Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3-6, decide whether enough information is given to prove that the triangles are congruent. If so, state the theorem you would use.

Question 3.

∆ABC, ∆QRS

Answer:

Question 4.

∆ABC, ∆DBC

Answer:

Question 5.

∆XYZ, ∆JKL

Answer:

Question 6.

∆RSV, ∆UTV

Answer:

In Exercises 7 and 8, state the third congruence statement that is needed to prove that ∆FGH ≅ ∆LMN the given theorem.

Question 7.

Given \(\overline{G H}\) ≅ \(\overline{M N}\), ∠G ≅ ∠M, _______ = ________

Use the AAS Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.11).

Answer:

Question 8.

Given \(\overline{F G}\) ≅ \(\overline{L M}\), ∠G ≅ ∠M, _______ = ________

Use the ASA Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.10).

Answer:

In Exercises 9 – 12. decide whether you can use the given information to prove that ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF Explain your reasoning.

Question 9.

∠A ≅ ∠G, ∠C ≅∠F, \(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{D F}\)

Answer:

Question 10.

∠C ≅ ∠F, \(\overline{A B}\) ≅ \(\overline{D E}\), \(\overline{B C}\) ≅ \(\overline{E F}\)

Answer:

Question 11.

∠B ≅ ∠E, ∠C ≅∠F, \(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{D E}\)

Answer:

Question 12.

∠A ≅ ∠D, ∠B ≅∠E, \(\overline{B C}\) ≅ \(\overline{E F}\)

Answer:

**CONSTRUCTION**

In Exercises 13 and 14, construct a triangle that is congruent to the given triangle using the ASA Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.10). Use a compass and straightedge.

Question 13.

Answer:

Question 14.

Answer:

**ERROR ANALYSIS**

In Exercises 15 and 16, describe and correct the error.

Question 15.

Answer:

Question 16.

Answer:

**PROOF**

In Exercises 17 and 18, prove that the triangles are congruent using the ASA Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.10).

Question 17.

Given M is the midpoint of \(\overline{N L}\).

Prove ∆NQM ≅ ∆MPL

Answer:

Question 18.

Given \(\overline{A J}\) ≅ \(\overline{K C}\) ∠BJK ≅ ∠BKJ, ∠A ≅ ∠C

Prove ∆ABK ≅ ∆CBJ

Answer:

**PROOF**

In Exercises 19 and 20, prove that the triangles are congruent using the AAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.11).

Question 19.

Given \(\overline{V W}\) ≅ \(\overline{U W}\), ∠X ≅ ∠Z

Prove ∆XWV ≅ ∆ZWU

Answer:

Question 20.

Given ∠NKM ≅∠LMK, ∠L ≅∠N

Prove ∆NMK ≅ ∆LKM

Answer:

**PROOF**

In Exercises 21-23, write a paragraph proof for the theorem about right triangles.

Question 21.

Hypotenuse-Angle (HA) Congruence Theorem

If an angle and the hypotenuse of a right triangle are congruent to an angle and the hypotenuse of a second right triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

Answer:

Question 22.

Leg-Leg (LL) Congruence Theorem

If the legs of a right triangle are congruent to the legs of a second right triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

Answer:

Question 23.

Angle-Leg (AL) Congruence Theorem

If an angle and a leg of a right triangle are congruent to an angle and a leg of a second right triangle, then the triangles are Congruent.

Answer:

Question 24.

**REASONING**

What additional in information do you need to prove ∆JKL ≅ ∆MNL by the ASA Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5. 10)?

(A) \(\overline{K M}\) ≅ \(\overline{K J}\)

(B) \(\overline{K H}\) ≅ \(\overline{N H}\)

(C) ∠M ≅ ∠J

(D) ∠LKJ ≅ ∠LNM

Answer:

Question 25.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

This toy contains △ABC and △DBC. Can you conclude that △ABC ≅ △DBC from the given angle measures? Explain

m∠ABC = (8x – 32)°

m∠DBC = (4y – 24)°

m∠BCA = (5x + 10)°

m∠BCD = (3y + 2)°

m∠CAB = (2x – 8)°

m∠CDB = (y – 6)°

Answer:

Question 26.

**REASONING**

Which of the following congruence statements are true? Select all that apply.

(A) \(\overline{B D}\) ≅ \(\overline{B D}\)

(B) ∆STV ≅ ∆XVW

(C) ∆TVS ≅ ∆VWU

(D) ∆VST ≅ ∆VUW

Answer:

Question 27.

**PROVING A THEOREM**

Prove the Converse of the Base Angles Theorem (Theorem 5.7). (Hint: Draw an auxiliary line inside the triangle.)

Answer:

Question 28.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Your friend claims to be able Lo rewrite any proof that uses the AAS Congruence Theorem (Thin. 5. 11) as a proof that uses the ASA Congruence Theorem (Thin. 5.10). Is this possible? Explain our reasoning.

Answer:

Question 29.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

When a light ray from an object meets a mirror, it is reflected back to your eye. For example, in the diagram, a light ray from point C is reflected at point D and travels back to point A. The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence, ∠CDB. is congruent to the angle of reflection. ∠ADB.

a. Prove that ∆ABD is Congruent to ∆CBD.

Given ∠CBD ≅∠ABD

DB ⊥ AC

Prove ∆ABD ≅ ∆CBD

b. Verify that ∆ACD is isosceles.

c. Does moving away from the mirror have an effect on the amount of his or her reflection a person sees? Explain.

Answer:

Question 30.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

Name as man pairs of congruent triangles as you can from the diagram. Explain how you know that each pair of triangles is congruent.

Answer:

Question 31.

**CONSTRUCTION**

Construct a triangle. Show that there is no AAA congruence rule by constructing a second triangle that has the same angle measures but is not congruent.

Answer:

Question 32.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

Graph theory is a branch of mathematics that studies vertices and the way they are connected. In graph theory. two polygons are isomorphic if there is a one-to-one mapping from one polygon’s vertices to the other polygon’s vertices that preserves adjacent vertices. In graph theory, are any two triangles isomorphic? Explain your reasoning. second triangle that has the same angle measures but is not congruent.

Answer:

Question 33.

Mathematical Connections

Six statements are given about ∆TUV and ∆XYZ

a. List all combinations of three given statements that could provide enough information to prove that ∆TUV is congruent to ∆XYZ.

b. You choose three statements at random. What is the probability that the statements you choose provide enough information to prove that the triangles are congruent?

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical proficiency

Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the line segment with the given endpoints.

Question 34.

C(1, 0) and D(5, 4)

Answer:

Question 35.

J(- 2, 3) and K(4, – 1)

Answer:

Question 36.

R(- 5, – 7) and S(2, – 4)

Answer:

Copy and angle using a compass and straightedge.

Question 37.

Answer:

Question 38.

Answer:

### 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles

**Exploration 1**

Measuring the Width of a River

Work with a partner:

The figure shows how a surveyor can measure the width of a river by making measurements on only one side of the river.

a. Study the figure. Then explain how the surveyor can find the width of the river.

Answer:

b. Write a proof to verify that the method you described in part (a) is valid.

Given ∠A is a right angle, ∠D is a right angle, \(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{C D}\)

Answer:

c. Exchange Proofs with your partner and discuss the reasoning used.

**CRITIQUING THE REASONING OF OTHERS**

To be proficient in math, you need to listen to or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Answer:

Exploration 2

Measuring the Width of a River

Work with a partner. It was reported that one of Napoleon’s offers estimated the width of a river as follows. The officer stood on the hank of the river and lowered the visor on his cap until the farthest thin visible was the edge of the bank on the other side. He then turned and rioted the point on his side that was in line with the tip of his visor and his eye. The officer then paced the distance to this point and concluded that distance was the width of the river.

a. Study the figure. Then explain how the officer concluded that the width of the river is EG.

Answer:

b. Write a proof to verify that the conclusion the officer made is correct.

Given ∠DEG is a right angle, ∠DEF is a right angle, ∠EDG ≅ ∠EDF

Answer:

c. Exchange proofs with your partner and discuss the reasoning used.

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 3.

How can you use congruent triangles to make an indirect measurement?

Answer:

Question 4.

Why do you think the types of measurements described in Explorations 1 and 2 are called indirect measurements?

Answer:

### Lesson 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles

**Monitoring Progress**

Question 1.

Explain how you can prove that ∠A ≅ ∠C.

Answer:

Question 2.

In Example 2, does it mailer how far from point N you place a stake at point K? Explain.

Answer:

Question 3.

Write a plan to prove that ∆PTU ≅ ∆UQP.

Answer:

Question 4.

Use the construction of an angle bisector on page 42. What segments can you assume are congruent?

Answer:

### Exercise 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles

Vocabulary and core concept check

Question 1.

**COMPLETE THE SENTENCE**

_____________ parts of congruent triangle are congruent.

Answer:

Question 2.

**WRITING**

Describe a situation in which you might choose to use indirect measurement with

congruent triangles to find a measure rather than measuring directly.

Answer:

Monitoring Progress and Modeling With Mathematics

In Exercise 3-8, explain how to prove that the statement is true.

Question 3.

∠A ≅ ∠D

Answer:

Question 4.

∠Q ≅∠T

Answer:

Question 5.

\(\overline{J M}\) ≅ \(\overline{L M}\)

Answer:

Question 6.

\(\overline{A C}\) ≅ \(\overline{D B}\)

Answer:

Question 7.

\(\overline{G K}\) ≅ \(\overline{H J}\)

Answer:

Question 8.

\(\overline{Q W}\) ≅ \(\overline{V T}\)

Answer:

In Exercises 9-12, write a plan to prove that ∠1 ≅∠2.

Question 9.

Answer:

Question 10.

Answer:

Question 11.

Answer:

Question 12.

Answer:

In Exercises 13 and 14. write a proof to verify that the construction is valid.

Question 13.

Line perpendicular to a line through a point not on the line

Plan for proof ∆APQ ≅ ∆BPQ by the congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.8). Then show the ∆APM ≅ ∆BPM using the SAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.5). Use corresponding parts of congruent triangles to show that ∠AMP and ∠BMP are right angles.

Answer:

Question 14.

Line perpendicular to a line through a p0int on the line

Plan for Proof Show that ∆APQ ≅ ∆BPQ by the SSS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.8) Use corresponding parts of congruent triangles to show that ∠QPA and ∠QPB are right angles.

Answer:

In Exercises 15 and 16, use the information given in the diagram to write a proof.

Question 15.

Prove \(\overline{F L}\) ≅ \(\overline{H N}\)

Answer:

Question 16.

Prove ∆PUX ≅ ∆QSY

Answer:

Question 17.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

Explain how to find the distance across the canyon.

Answer:

Question 18.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

Use the tangram puzzle.

Answer:

a. Which triangle(s) have an area that is twice the area of the purple triangle?

b. How man times greater is the area of the orange triangle than the area of the purple triangle?

Answer:

Question 19.

**PROOF**

Prove that the green triangles in the Jamaican flag congruent if \(\overline{A D}\) || \(\overline{B C}\) and E is the midpoint of \(\overline{A C}\).

Answer:

Question 20.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

The Bermuda Triangle is a region in the Atlantic Ocean in which many ships and planes have mysteriously disappeared. The vertices are Miami. San Juan. and Bermuda. Use the Internet or some other resource to find the side lengths. the perimeter, and the area of this triangle (in miles). Then create a congruent triangle on land using cities as vertices.

Answer:

Question 21.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Your friend claims that ∆WZY can be proven congruent to ∆YXW using the HL Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.9). Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 22.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

Determine whether each conditional statement is true or false. If the statement is false, rewrite it as a true statement using the converse, inverse, or contrapositive.

a. If two triangles have the same perimeter, then they are congruent.

b. If two triangles are congruent. then they have the same area.

Answer:

Question 23.

**ATTENDING TO PRECISION**

Which triangles are congruent to ∆ABC? Select all that apply.

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency

Find the perimeter of the polygon with the given vertices.

Question 24.

A(- 1, 1), B(4, 1), C(4, – 2), D(- 1, – 2)

Answer:

Question 25.

J(- 5, 3), K(- 2, 1), L(3, 4)

Answer:

### 5.8 Coordinate Proofs

**Exploration 1**

Writing a coordinate Proof

Work with a partner.

a. Use dynamic geometry software to draw \(\overline{A B}\) with endpoints A(0, 0) and B(6, 0).

Answer:

b. Draw the vertical line x = 3.

Answer:

c. Draw ∆ABC so that C lies on the line x = 3.

Answer:

d. Use your drawing to prove that ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle.

Answer:

**Exploration 2**

Writing a Coordinate proof

Work with a partner.

a. Use dynamic geometry software to draw \(\overline{A B}\) with endpoints A(0, 0) and B(6, 0).

b. Draw the vertical line x = 3.

c. Plot the point C(3, 3) and draw ∆ABC. Then use your drawing to prove that ∆ABC is an isosceles right triangle.

d. Change the coordinates of C so that C lies below the x-axis and ∆ABC is an isosceles right triangle.

Answer:

e. Write a coordinate proof to show that if C lies on the line x = 3 and ∆ABC is an isosceles right triangle. then C must be the point (3, 3) or the point found in part (d).

**CRITIQUING THE REASONING OF OTHERS**

To be proficient in math, you need to understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results.

Answer:

Communicate Your Answer

Question 3.

How can you use a coordinate plane to write a proof?

Answer:

Question 4.

Write a coordinate proof to prove that ∆ABC with vertices A(0, 0), 8(6, 0), and C(3, 3√3) is an equilateral triangle.

Answer:

### Lesson 5.8 Coordinate Proofs

**Monitoring Progress**

Question 1.

Show another way to place the rectangle in Example 1 part (a) that is convenient

for finding side lengths. Assign new coordinates.

Answer:

Question 2.

A square has vertices (0, 0), (m, 0), and (0, m), Find the fourth vertex.

Answer:

Question 3.

Write a plan for the proof.

Given \(\vec{G}\)J bisects ∠OGH.

Proof ∆GJO ≅ ∆GJH

Answer:

Question 4.

Graph the points 0(0, 0), H(m, n), and J(m, 0). Is ∆OHJ a right triangle? Find the side lengths and the coordinates of the midpoint of each side.

Answer:

Question 5.

Write a coordinate proof.

Given Coordinates of vertices of ∆NPO and ∆NMO

Prove ∆NPO ≅ ∆NMO

Answer:

### Exercise 5.8 Coordinate Proofs

Vocabulary and Core Concept Check

Question 1.

**VOCABULARY**

How is a coordinate proof different from other types of proofs you have studied?

How is it the same?

Answer:

Question 2.

**WRITING**

Explain why it is convenient to place a right triangle on the grid as shown when writing a coordinate proof.

Answer:

Maintaining Progress and Modeling with Mathematics

In Exercises 3-6, place (he figure in a coordinate plane in a convenient way. Assign coordinates to each vertex. Explain the advantages of your placement.

Question 3.

a right triangle with leg lengths of 3 units and 2 units

Answer:

Question 4.

a square with a side length of 3 units

Answer:

Question 5.

an isosceles right triangle with leg length p

Answer:

Question 6.

a scalene triangle with one side length of 2m

Answer:

In Exercises 7 and 8, write a plan for the proof.

Question 7.

Given Coordinates of vertices of ∆OPM and ∆ONM Prove ∆OPM and ∆ONM are isosceles triangles.

Answer:

Question 8.

Given G is the midpoint of \(\overline{H F}\).

Prove ∆GHJ ≅ ∆GFO

Answer:

In Exercises 9-12, place the figure in a coordinate plane and find the indicated length.

Question 9.

a right triangle with leg lengths of 7 and 9 units; Find the length of the hypotenuse.

Answer:

Question 10.

an isosceles triangle with a base length of 60 units and a height of 50 units: Find the length of one of the legs.

Answer:

Question 11.

a rectangle with a length o! 5 units and a width of 4 units: Find the length of the diagonal.

Answer:

Question 12.

a square with side length n: Find the length of the diagonal.

Answer:

In Exercises 13 and 14, graph the triangle with the given vertices. Find the length and the slope of each side of the triangle. Then find the coordinates of the midpoint of each side. Is the triangle a right triangle? isosceles? Explain. Assume all variables are positive and in m ≠ n.)

Question 13.

A(0, 0), B(h, h), C(2h, 0)

Answer:

Question 14.

D(0, n), E(m, n), F(m, 0)

Answer:

In Exercises 15 and 16, find the coordinates of any unlabeled vertices. Then find the indicated length(s).

Question 15.

Find ON and MN.

Answer:

Question 16.

Find OT.

Answer:

**PROOF**

In Exercises 17 and 18, rite a coordinate proof.

Question 17.

Given Coordinates of vertices of ∆DEC and ∆BOC

Prove ∆DEC ≅ ∆BOC

Answer:

Question 18.

Given Coordinates of ∆DEA, H is the midpoint of \(\overline{D A}\), G is the mid point of \(\overline{E A}\)

Prove \(\overline{D G}\) ≅ \(\overline{E H}\)

Answer:

Question 19.

**MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS**

You and your cousin are camping in the woods. You hike to a point that is 500 meters cast and 1200 meters north of the Campsite. Your cousin hikes to a point that is 1000 meters cast of the campsite. Use a coordinate proof to prove that the triangle formed by your Position, your Cousin’s position. and the campsite is isosceles. (See Example 5.)

Answer:

Question 20.

**MAKING AN ARGUMENT**

Two friends see a drawing of quadrilateral PQRS with vertices P(0, 2), Q(3, – 4), R(1, – 5), and S(- 2, 1). One friend says the quadrilateral is a parallelogram but not a rectangle. The other friend says the quadrilateral is a rectangle. Which friend is correct? Use a coordinate proof to support your answer.

Answer:

Question 21.

**MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS**

Write an algebraic expression for the coordinates of each endpoint of a line segment whose midpoint is the origin.

Answer:

Question 22.

**REASONING**

The vertices of a parallelogram are (w, 0), (o, v), (- w, 0), and (0, – v). What is the midpoint of the side in Quadrant III?

(a) \(\left(\frac{w}{2}, \frac{v}{2}\right)\)

(b) \(\left(-\frac{w}{2},-\frac{v}{2}\right)\)

(c) \(\left(-\frac{w}{2}, \frac{v}{2}\right)\)

(d) \(\left(\frac{w}{2},-\frac{v}{2}\right)\)

Answer:

Question 23.

**REASONING**

A rectangle with a length of 3h and a width of k has a vertex at (- h, k), Which point cannot be a vertex of the rectangle?

(A) (h, k)

(B) (- h, 0)

(c) (2h, 0)

(D) (2h, k)

Answer:

Question 24.

**THOUGHT PROVOKING**

Choose one of the theorems you have encountered up to this point that you think would be easier to prove with a coordinate proof than with another type of proof. Explain your reasoning. Then write a coordinate proof.

Answer:

Question 25.

**CRITICAL THINKING**

The coordinates of a triangle are (5d – 5d), (0, – 5d), and (5d, 0). How sh

would the coordinates be changed to make a coordinate proof easier to complete?

Answer:

Question 26.

**HOW DO YOU SEE IT?**

without performing any calculations, how do you know that the diagonals of square TUVW are perpendicular to each oilier? How can you use a similar diagram to show that the diagonals of any square are perpendicular to each other?

Answer:

Question 27.

**PROOF**

Write a coordinate proof for each statement.

a. The midpoint o! the hypotenuse of a right triangle is the same distance from each vertex of the triangle.

b. Any two congruent right isosceles triangles can be combined to form a single isosceles triangle.

Answer:

Maintaining Mathematical proficiency

\(\vec{Y}\)W bisects ∠XYZ such that m∠XYW = (3x – 7)° and m∠WYZ = (2x + 1)°.

Question 28.

Find the value of x.

Answer:

Question 29.

Find m∠XYZ

Answer:

### Congruent Triangles Chapter Review

### 5.1 Angles of Triangles

Question 1.

Classify the triangle at the right by its sides and by measuring its angles.

Answer:

Find the measure of the exterior angle.

Question 2.

Answer:

Question 3.

Answer:

Find the measure of each acute angle.

Question 4.

Answer:

Question 5.

Answer:

### 5.2 Congruent Polygons

Question 6.

In the diagram. GHJK ≅ LMNP. Identify all pairs of congruent corresponding parts. Then write another congruence statement for the quadrilaterals.

Answer:

Question 7.

Find m ∠ V.

Answer:

### 5.3 Proving Triangle Congruence by SAS

Decide whether enough information is given to prove that ∆WXZ ≅ ∆YZX using the SAS Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.5). If so, write a proof. If not, explain why.

Question 8.

Answer:

Question 9.

Answer:

### 5.4 Equilateral and Isosceles Triangles

Copy and Complete the statement.

Question 10.

If \(\overline{Q P}\) ≅ \(\overline{Q R}\), then ∠ ______ ≅ ∠ ______ .

Answer:

Question 11.

If ∠TRV ≅ ∠TVR, then ______ ≅ ______ .

Answer:

Question 12.

If \(\overline{R Q} \cong \overline{R S}\), then ∠ ______ ≅ ∠ ______ .

Answer:

Question 13.

If ∠SRV ≅ ∠SVR, then ______ ≅ ______ .

Answer:

Question 14.

Find the values of x and y in the diagram.

Answer:

### 5.5 Proving Triangle Congruence by SSS

Question 15.

Decide whether enough information is given to prose that ∆LMP ≅ ∆NPM using the SSS Congruence Theorem (Thin. 5.8). If so, write a proof. If not, explain why.

Answer:

Question 16.

Decide whether enough information is given to prove that ∆WXZ ≅ ∆YZX using the HL Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.9). If so, write a proof. If not, explain why.

Answer:

### 5.6 Proving Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS

Question 17.

∆EFG, ∆HJK

Answer:

Question 18.

∆TUS, ∆QRS

Answer:

Decide whether enough information is given to prove that the triangles are congruent using the ASA Congruence Theorem (Thm. 5.10). If so, write a proof, If not, explain why.

Question 19.

∆LPN, ∆LMN

Answer:

Question 20.

∆WXZ, ∆YZX

Answer:

### 5.7 Using Congruent Triangles

Question 21.

Explain how to prove that ∠K ≅∠N.

Answer:

Question 22.

Write a plan to prkove that ∠1 ≅ ∠2

Answer:

### 5.8 Coordinate Proofs

Question 23.

Write a coordinate proof.

Given Coordinates of vertices of quadrilateral OPQR

Prove ∆OPQ ≅ ∆QRO

Answer:

Question 24.

Place an isosceles triangle in a coordinate plane in a way that is convenient for finding side lengths. Assign coordinates to each vertex.

Answer:

Question 25.

A rectangle has vertices (0, 0), (2k, 0), and (0, k), Find the fourth vertex.

Answer:

### Congruent Triangles Test

Write a Proof.

Question 1.

Given \(\overline{C A} \cong \overline{C B} \cong \overline{C D} \cong \overline{C E}\)

Prove ∆ABC ≅ ∆EDC

Answer:

Question 2.

Given \(\overline{J K}\|\overline{M L}, \overline{M J}\| \overline{K L}\)

Prove ∆MJK ≅ ∆KLM

Answer:

Question 3.

Gven \overline{Q R} \cong \overrightarrow{R S}\(\), ∠P ≅ ∠T

Prove ∆SRP ≅ ∆QRT

Answer:

Question 4.

Find the measure of each acute angle in the figure at the right.

Answer:

Question 5.

Is it possible to draw an equilateral triangle that is not equiangular? If so, provide an example. If not, explain why.

Answer:

Question 6.

Can you use the Third Angles Theorem (Theorem 5.4) to prove that two triangles are congruent? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Write a plan through that ∠1 ≅∠2

Question 7.

Answer:

Question 8.

Answer:

Question 9.

Is there more than one theorem that could be used to prove that ∆ABD ≅ ∆CDB? If so, list all possible theorems.

Answer:

Question 10.

Write a coordinate proof t0 show that the triangles created b the keyboard stand are congruent.

Answer:

Question 11.

The picture shows the Pyramid of Cestius. which is located in Rome, Italy. The measure of the base for the triangle shown is 100 Roman feet. The measures of the other two sides of the triangle are both 144 Roman feet.

a. Classify the triangle shown by its sides.

Answer:

b. The measure of ∠3 is 40° What are the measures of ∠1 and ∠2? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

### Congruent Triangles Cumulative Assessment

Question 1.

Your friend claims that the Exterior Angle Theorem (Theorem 5.2) can be used to prove the Triangle Sum Theorem (Theorem 5, 1). Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 2.

Use the steps in the construction to explain how you know that the line through point P is parallel to line m.

Answer:

Question 3.

The coordinate plane shows ∆JKL and ∆XYZ

a. Write a composition of transformations that maps ∆JKL to ∆XYZ

Answer:

b. Is the composition a congruence transformation? If so, identify all congruent corresponding parts.

Answer:

Question 4.

The directed line segment RS is shown. Point Q is located along \(\overline{R S}\) so that the ratio of RQ to QS is 2 to 3. What are the coordinates of point Q?

(A) Q(1, 2, 3)

(B) Q(4, 2)

(C) Q(2, 3)

(D) Q(-6, 7)

Answer:

Question 5.

The coordinate plane shows that ∆ABC and ∆DEF

a. Prove ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF using the given information.

Answer:

b. Describe the composition of rigid motions that maps ∆ABC to ∆DEF

Answer:

Question 6.

The vertices of a quadrilateral are W(0, 0), X(- 1, 3), )(2, 7), and Z(4, 2). Your friend claims that point W will not change after dilatinig quadrilateral WXYZ by a scale factor of 2. Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

Question 7.

Which figure(s) have rotational symmetry? Select all that apply.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Answer:

Question 8.

Write a coordinate proof.

Given Coordinates of vertices of quadrilateral ABCD

Prove Quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle.

Answer:

Question 9.

Write a proof to verify that the construction of the equilateral triangle shown below is valid.

Answer: